Friedemann Freund

    SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center

    Friedemann Freund, Ph.D. is a mineral physicist with a lifelong interest in defects in crystals

    He used semiconductor concepts to study proton conductivity in non-H-bonded systems. He is credited with the discovery of the near-universal occurrence of oxygen in the 1– valence state in the rocks of the Earth crust, leading to highly mobile electronic hole-type charge carriers that are equivalent to the Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in biological systems.

    He provided a unifying theory for the many seemingly intractable signals emitted prior to earthquakes, including ultra-low frequency (ULF) electromagnetic (EM) waves from deep within the Earth. He is part of a team studying the physiological effects of ULF-EM waves on living organisms, including humans.