Stephen Haynes, Osteopath and IDD Therapy provider, and Clinical Director of Active Therapy Clinic, highlights the causes of a herniated disc and what treatments are available, here

“Herniated disc” is not a phrase we tend to learn about in biology classes at school. Patients usually come across it for the first time from a therapist or doctor, just after they have found themselves with excruciating pain in their neck, back or legs, wondering what on earth they have done to themselves!

Our spines are like a stack of cotton reels, with sponge-like cushions between them surrounded by soft tissues. The cotton reels are the bones and the cushions are the discs. When the centre or nucleus of a disc pushes out and even passes through the wall of the disc, this is what we refer to as a herniated disc.

The good news is that the vast majority of herniated discs can be treated without surgery using manual therapy and exercise or with IDD Therapy disc treatment. It is only a small percentage of cases which go on to have surgery.

This article helps to explain what causes a herniated disc and how the non-surgical treatments aim to resolve this debilitating condition.

Healthy discs before herniation

To understand how any treatments work, it is useful to understand what happens to cause a herniated disc or “disc herniation”.

A spinal disc or “intervertebral disc” sits between the bones of our spines. In the spinal column, each bone (vertebra) is a solid structure. In order to bend our spines and cushion the vertebrae which are stacked on top of each other, the discs act as shock absorbers sandwiched between the vertebrae.

The discs are very strong, slightly spongy and provide cushioning. They consist of an outer wall made of collagen and the centre of the disc is made of a toothpaste-like substance, called the nucleus pulposus. At birth, the nucleus is made of 80% water and this percentage reduces as we age.

When a disc is healthy and hydrated it is bouncy like a well-inflated bicycle tyre, this is called hydrostatic pressure. The most important thing we can do to look after our discs is to move, have good posture and to drink plenty of water.

Movement, posture and hydration

The reason movement and good posture are so important is because discs help to support the pressure of our body. If we don’t move, the constant pressure pushes the nucleus of the disc against the outer wall and over time, weakens it.

The discs absorb water from their surroundings and if they are under constant pressure (compression), they cannot absorb water. Without water, the discs lose some of their hydrostatic pressure and shock-absorbing properties. Additionally, as the discs lose water, the walls of the disc can dry out and weaken, making them less able to keep the nucleus inside, rather like the weakened walls of a dam which holds back water.

We constantly talk about posture with our patients.

Sitting and slouching squashes the life out of our discs. This is because if we slouch over we put a lot of pressure on the discs at the base of the spine.

When we slouch in one position, we squash the front side of the disc and the nucleus of the disc is pushed back hard against the rear of the disc. The front side can slowly dry out and weaken whilst the back side of the disc can weaken because it has the nucleus forced back against it for long periods.

Pressure can also be exerted on the body when the surrounding muscles are weak, meaning there is less support for the discs and they are squashed even more. The muscles in our back and our “core” muscles provide essential support to keep the spine supported and strong, which takes excess pressure off the discs.

We are recommended to drink two litres of water per day. Our discs are made of collagen, which is the same material as in our skin. We moisturise our skin to keep it from drying it out. Water in the body is essential for the collagen in our discs and without enough water, the disc walls will dry out and weaken.

When a disc herniates

At any given time, we may have discs bulging out of shape. When the nucleus of a disc pushes out and even passes through the walls of the disc, this is called a herniated disc of disc herniation. Pain can strike immediately.

The spinal column houses the spinal cord and at each level of the spine, nerves branch off from the spinal cord. The discs separate the vertebrae and allow space between them for these nerves to travel to the different parts of our body.

If the disc herniates, the nucleus can press against one of the nerves and this pressure can cause pain. Additionally, the material of the nucleus causes a chemical irritation to the nerve and pain. When there is an injury to the disc, the body has a natural “inflammatory” response to heal an injury. Inflammation is a good thing, but if pain persists, the inflammation can be a source of pain in itself. This is why we often take anti-inflammatories to dampen down the inflammation.

For discs in the neck, this can lead to shooting pains in the arms. In the lower back, it can cause pain in the buttocks or legs as pressure is put on to the sciatic nerve, “sciatica”. The lower back has five discs and depending on which disc has herniated, the pain is felt in different parts of the leg or buttocks as different nerves control different parts of our lower limbs.

The bodyguards itself when the disc herniates. To stop further injury, the body goes into spasm. This is where the muscles contract rigidly to stop any further movement, which may risk damage, this causes intense pain in itself!

The herniation can be caused by an injury such as falling or a collision, where the impact pushes the nucleus violently against the disc wall causing it to rupture (herniated). Or more commonly, where a disc wall has been weakened over time, a twisting movement, poor bending posture or improper lifting can force the nucleus against the disc wall which is unable to contain it. Herniation results.

How to treat a herniated disc

The good news is that the body will repair itself, provided the conditions are right and the injury is not too severe. However, if the pain persists, the spinal segment is not moving and over time it can become stiff and immobile and prevent the healing mechanism from working normally.

Manual therapy and exercise

Manual therapists work with patients in a number of ways. When someone presents with a herniated disc, we look at the overall function of the body. We can use stretching techniques to ease the muscle spasm and then we use our hands to move the joints, to mobilise them. This mobilisation is important to free the movement and allow the body’s natural healing mechanisms to operate.

A herniated disc is not purely about the spine.  As an Osteopath, I look at the hips and the whole body. If one part of the body is not moving properly, this can mean that certain movements and thus additional forces pass through the back e.g. if the hips are not moving, twisting motion which would normally be a combination of hip and lower back movement can pass primarily through the back. That puts excessive forces on the discs and they can herniate. So we look at those imbalances and work on them.

The word exercise usually elicits a groan – but exercise needn’t be boot camp types of exercise! Once we get movement back in the spine and start to address structural imbalances, simple exercises to strengthen the muscles will help to support the spine and ease pressure on the disc. That creates an environment for the body to heal itself and repair the injured disc.

IDD therapy disc treatment

Disc herniation usually occurs at a specific level. The two discs at the base of the spine, called L5/S1 and L4/L5 are the most common to suffer herniation. The spinal segments are extremely strong and if they become stiff over a long period of time, it can be difficult to take the pressure off the disc and get the segment moving again.

IDD Therapy is a mechanical tool which allows us to decompress and mobilise targeted spinal segments. It was developed to address the failings of earlier traction treatment and the key with IDD Therapy is it works at the specific spinal segment.

Patients are connected to the Accu SPINA machine with ergonomic harnesses. Then using computer-controlled pulling forces, IDD Therapy directs a pulling force to a targeted level to gently open the space between two vertebrae and to relieve pressure on the disc and nerves. At the same time, the system gently oscillates the forces, meaning the soft tissues are both stretched and mobilised.

The combination of decompression and mobilisations helps to take the pressure off the disc and restore mobility. The treatment forces applied are progressively increased as the body adapts.

The good news is IDD Therapy is extremely comfortable and suitable for people of all ages. Some patients even go to sleep! IDD Therapy is combined with manual therapy and exercise and patients have a course of treatments over a six week period. The aim is to relieve pain and create a platform for long term healing.

IDD Therapy is suitable for most patients with an unresolved herniated disc. The exceptions being if people are pregnant have metal implants in their spine or they have severe osteoporosis. If a patient has severe weakness in their legs or the herniated disc is causing incontinence, then we would refer them immediately to a consultant.


Surgery is a last resort to treat a herniated disc when manual therapy and IDD Therapy have not brought about change. When the pain is so severe and unresolved, or if the nerve pain is causing weakness in the leg, then surgery can be carried out to remove the part of the disc pushing on the nerve.

Surgery can relieve the leg pain instantly, however it is not given routinely because there are risks and it does not address the underlying causes of the compression, immobility in the spine and weakness.

Hence it is so important to have full rehab when a patient undergoes surgery for a herniated disc.

Life after a herniated disc

If weakness and a lack of movement contributed to the disc herniation, it goes without saying that certain lifestyle changes will make a big impact on preventing a recurrence of the problem. Gentle activity like walking helps, or specific exercise classes to stay flexible and strong, such as pilates may benefit. Of course, we want people to be more aware of their posture and hydration.

Most people fully recover from a herniated disc and it is important people get the right advice from a registered professional. The goal of most practitioners is to help people out of pain and onto a path of long term wellbeing.


  1. I currently have a herniated l5 s1 that is causing numbness in my legs and lots of pain. I see my spine doctor in 4 days and i am hoping he will give IDD therapy a shot. I would rather not have surgery but at this point i just want whatever works. Thank you for the hope of something other than surgery!!

    • Hi. Have the same issue as
      You. Just wondered how you are now. I have booked a course of 20 IDD sessions and had my 8th today. Not seem any improvement yet.

  2. This was very helpful. I have a herniated dist L5,S1. its so painful, I have an appointment with a surgeon. However, Im going to drink more water and try IDD.

  3. I’m also experiencing a whole lot of pain to my lower back and numbness down my legs. I have an appointment to go over the test results with my PHD early next month. It was nice to learn a little of the terms used in the findings so I appreciated reading this article. Thx again for a great article!

    • Do you have L5 S1 grade 1 ? Do you have lower back LEFT side pain ? Plz revert I want to confirm that this pain coming from bocoz of disc slip or something else .my MRI report says no harniate .

  4. Thank you for the explanation on herniated disc’s, I have two bulging disc’s is the treatment the same? I was told that I couldn’t repair them, is this right?

  5. Just a little note. My spine is a mess. Lots of different areas.Disc disease!arthritis,stenosis!scoliosis, something else. But, i had cervical surgery.plate and fusion. It gave me feeling back iny arm.But,still in pain.And was told there wouldnt be problems in my neck for a long time. I didnt get 15months. No numbness.But pain back at full force. My back pain never stopped. Its now life changing because of so much pain.Pain meds knock the edge off. Surgeon said something about an artificial disc. 1. made no sense, i have multiple things wrong. 2.he wants to go through my stomach to put this artificial disc in.3.with researching this type.there are people that dont qualify to have this kind of operation.I had 8 things from this list out of 12.he never said a word about it. some of these would be life changing.and not for the good. and they wear out .just like a regular disc. and pain could still be there.if the problem isnt fixed from putting you in this position in the first place.then why chance what could be life changing,some permanent. So, im looking for other options. Maybe a robotic

  6. Hello folk . I have L5 S1 grade 1 slip disc. MRI says -No harniate. I lifted heavy weight since I feel pain in left side lower back pain only. I want to confirm this pain is coming from slip disc or something else. Thanks in advance

  7. thanks for helping us out on how to lessen the pain i think i have a herniated disc L4 /L5 and its very painful
    the pain is troubling me its almost everydayand im very worried

  8. thanks for the advice i think i have degenerated disc L4/L5 it is very painful and im very worried cz the pain is almost there every

  9. hello, i have just read this article and it gives me a relief. i have herniated or bulging disc. C5-C6. i just talk to my neurosurgeon as well…im thankful….i just need to do PT, exercises, pilates and not to lift heavy weights and some heavy workouts that needs more pressure of my neck….ignoring some symptoms before is not a good thing to do…i regret it so much…have to listen with our body…hope everyone have a relief and will just be fine…thank u for posting this article. God bless.

    • How long did your theraphy session last and is there any side effect after not having any surgery? I have freshly Herniated c4-C5. Thanks-J

  10. What I really believe that can be an alternative for recovery and treatment or pain management is acupuncture. As a cancer survivor, I’d like to promote the worth and effectiveness of acupuncture and other complementary therapies. I was seriously crippled and in tremendous agony after undergoing chemotherapy for throat cancer. I needed to come up with new ways to deal with the discomfort and recuperate appropriately via rest.


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